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bbsriver
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 【它山之石可以攻玉】特别篇之七 :普林斯顿大学杀人游戏特殊角色全译

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本帖被 bbsriver 从 它山之石 移动到本区(2008-03-11)
Quote:
目       录


  • 第1楼 天使和先知 | 狗狗版称:占卜;通称:警察

  • 第2楼 目击者 | 不固定人选的警察

  • 第3楼 大天使和魔法师 | 狗狗版称:束魂;通称:医生

  • 第4楼 两个大天使 | 相当于两个医生

  • 第5楼 防弹衣和狼毒 | 只能保护自己的医生

  • 第6楼 恶魔和巫师 | 站在杀手方专门找出警察的“警察”

  • 第7楼 共济会员 | 互知身份的平民

  • 第8楼 警卫 | 俄罗斯规则称:狙击手

  • 第9楼 市长 | 只能杀一次人的狙击手

  • 第10楼 心理学家 | 站在平民方专门找出狙击手的“警察”

  • 第11楼 海象、蛋人和牙仙女 | 可以阻止狙击手杀人

  • 第12楼 教父 | 最高等级的杀手

  • 第13楼 隐身教父 | 警察找不出来的杀手

  • 第14楼 地方官 | 保护一个玩家不被投票处决

  • 第15楼 独狼 | 通称:独立杀手

  • 第16楼 小天使 | 隔一轮才能调查一个人的警察

  • 第17楼 蓝博 | 一次可以杀三个人的狙击手

  • 第18楼 教头 | 必须同一夜至少被两种角色杀到才会死的平民

  • 第19楼 烈士 | 可以在夜里代替其他玩家被杀的平民

  • 第20楼 州长 | 可以免除白天被处决的玩家一死

  • 第21楼 米勒 | 会被警察误认作杀手的平民

  • 第22楼 法医 | 可以检查每夜的死者是被哪种角色杀死

  • 第23楼 验尸员 | 法医的简化版

  • 第24楼 赌徒 | 可以让死者复活,也可以行使警察的权力

  • 第25楼 吸血鬼 | 被杀之后就会转职为杀手的平民

  • 第26楼 妓女 | 近似于警察

  • 第27楼 特别检举人 | 站在平民方调查谁是警察和医生的“警察”

  • 第28楼 代理人 | 站在杀手方主动代替杀手被处决的“杀手”

  • 第29楼 追捕者 | 集警察和狙击手于一身

  • 第30楼 保镖 | 对抗狙击手和蓝博的医生

  • 第31楼 树桩 | 不能投票也不会被杀的平民

  • 第32楼 陪审团 | 取代平民投票,来决定每天处决谁的一些玩家

  • 第33楼 双重间谍 | 可以行使其他所有角色的权力的玩家

  • 第34楼 大圣人 | 类似国内规则的“地雷”,但是只在白天爆炸

  • 第35楼 恐怖分子 | 类似国内规则的“地雷”,但是属于杀手方

  • 第36楼 小偷 | 站在杀手方,禁止其他玩家在夜间行使权力

  • 第37楼 施托伊贝尔 | 杀人后不公布他的被害者的身份的杀手

  • 第38楼 犹大/扫罗 | 被杀后会转职的一对平民/杀手

  • 第39楼 自由记者 | 第三方角色

  • 第40楼 夏平 | 让其他特权推迟一轮发生效力的平民

  • 第41楼 血亲复仇 | 不固定人选的狙击手

  • 第42楼 事故受害者 | 前两轮不能行使夜间权力的玩家

  • 第43楼 丘比特和恋人们 | 一个被杀另一个就也会死亡的一对玩家

  • 第44楼 巴士司机 | 可以在夜间调换其他两个玩家的身份

  • 第45楼 拥王者/国王/女王 | 取代平民投票,来决定每天处决谁的一些玩家


Posted: 2006-04-18 17:11 | [楼 主]
bbsriver
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Quote:
Angel and Seer
                                       


Aliases:

The Angel is also known as: Cop, Detective, Policeman, Inspector, Sheriff, Informant
                                                                                                                                                               
The Angel is a verry basic character on the side of the Civilians. Once a night, it gets to check one player. The moderator indicates whether that player is a Mafia member or not. Note that characters working for the Mafia (such as the Devil) appear to be clear.

The Seer performs the same task, but checks out Werewolves. Thus a Mafia member will appear clear to the Seer and a Werewolf will appear to be clear to the Angel. Caution is advised!




Source: http://www.princeton.edu/~mafia/vr0.htm

bbsriver翻译和评注

    [*] “天使”即狗狗版术语的“占卜”和其他规则中的警察。这个角色看来哪里都有。普林斯顿规则中,由于引入了另一组杀手“狼人”角色,因此又设立了“先知”。第二组杀手的出现等于限制了天使的权力,而对天使的知情权的限制我觉得是非常必要的。

以下是译文和评注:

Quote:
天使和先知

bbsriver 译自 www.princeton.edu/~mafia/vr0.htm


别名:

天使亦称:警官、侦探、警察、巡警、治安官、线人
                                                                                                                               
天使是平民这边一个非常基本的角色。每夜他可以调查一个玩家,法官告诉他这个玩家是不是杀手。注意杀手方的其他角色(如恶魔)被问到的时候,法官会回答不是。

先知的功能和天使相同。不同的是他调查的是狼人。因此当先知调查一个杀手的时候,法官会告诉先知那人是清白的。狼人对天使亦然。慎重考虑!
Posted: 2006-04-18 17:31 | 1 楼
bbsriver
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Quote:
Witness
                                       


The Witness replaces the angel and falls in better keeping with the theme of a small Italian village.

When someone is killed by the Mafia, and after the Mafia have gone to sleep, the moderator, without waking all of the civilians, announces who died. That person wakes up and flips his/her card.

Then, the next surviving person clockwise from the deceased will be called, by name, to awake. This person is the witness and gets to ask about someone, much as the angel would. Note that the witness may be a member of the Mafia, but the moderator should go through the formalities anyway.

Variant. The deceased points to someone who becomes the witness.




Source: http://www.princeton.edu/~mafia/vgp29.htm

bbsriver翻译和评注

    [*] 这个规则用“目击者”取代了天使。让我很惊讶:按这个规则每夜谁成为目击者是公开的。就是说,每夜都有一个公开的玩家会知道另一个玩家的真实身份。平民只要把每夜自己目击所得讲出来,就能拼成一份真相。或者,杀手为了阻止平民成为目击者,只能在杀人的时候有意把自己的同伙安排成目击者。但这同样容易引起平民的警觉。无论如何,这个规则对于杀手来说很困难,也降低了推理的难度。

以下是译文和评注:

Quote:
目击者

bbsriver 译自 www.princeton.edu/~mafia/vgp29.htm


用目击者这个角色取代天使,更切合意大利小村庄的背景。

杀手杀人之后,重新进入梦乡。然后,法官在叫醒众人之前,先宣布谁被杀了。这个人醒来并翻开他的牌。

接着,活着的人当中按顺时针方向与这个遇害者相邻的那个玩家被唤醒,他成为目击者。目击者可以像天使那样问一个人是不是杀手。注意:杀手也可以成为目击者。即使目击者是个杀手,法官也要走一遍召唤目击者的流程。

演化版本:由死者指定一个人来当目击者。
Posted: 2006-04-19 19:37 | 2 楼
bbsriver
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Quote:
Archangel and Sorcerer
                                       


Aliases:

The Archangel is also known as: Doctor, Nurse, Medic

The Sorcerer is also known as: Healer
                                                                                                                                                               
The Archangel (to which we normally assign the ace of hearts) is a protecting character, who wakes up once during each night and indicates someone who is to be protected. During the night, the moderator shall announce "Archangel awake." The archangel shall open his eyes. The archangel may protect one person from mafia assassination during the night. The moderator shall ask, "Archangel, who do you want to protect?" The archangel shall point to someone, who may be the archangel himself. The moderator shall announce "Archangel asleep" and the archangel shall close his eyes. If that person is chosen to be killed by the Mafia during the same night, then the moderator merely announces at daybreak that noone was killed during the night.

This is a very powerful character, and we no longer play with one frequently. When we do play with an archangel, we generally limit his power to protecting people other then himself. This avoids the nasty problem of a game ending in a tie-- with one member of the Mafia who cannot kill the archangel and an archangel who cannot muster a majority during the day to kill the lone remaining Mafia member.

It is important to note that the Archangel does not protect against anything else than being killed by Mafia at night. The player can still be kille by Werewolves, the Vigilante or the Mayor.

The Sorcerer, similarly, protects one player (not self) against Werewolves.

Note - The Archangel was part of the original Mafia rules when it was introduced at Princeton. This variant was originally titled "No Archangel" and the archangel was included in the main rules. This is what we had to say about the character back when it was a regular:
    It seems that many folks play without an archangel. This means that that the angel will almost never reveal himself, because he will be an obvious target for the mafia once he does so. In this case, the angel must work anonymously, attempting to influence the game by mere argument.

    Note - We have played this variant on several occasions with great success. Generally, it is best to consider having two angels in this case instead of one. We have also discovered a very interesting strategy, namely that the angel should begin by checking on those players next to him. If they are cleared of being mafia, the angel should "smuggle out" information to this person by speaking quietly or otherwise indicating who is guilty and who isn't. In this way, information learned by the angel survives the angel and accusations can be made by the neighbor(s) of the angel, who, as ordinary civilians, are more expendable than the angel.
Note - We received on 12/27/99 a communication from Ephraim Ross of Pomona College who has informed us that he has played with a similar character called the Sheriff.

See also Two Archangels.




Source: http://www.princeton.edu/~mafia/vr1.htm

bbsriver翻译和评注

    [*] “大天使”即狗狗版术语中的“束魂”和其他规则中的医生。从文中看,普林斯顿人并不知道国内规则为了避免医生无聊的永远保护同一个人,已经设计两夜扎空针会致死的规定。国内的规则这一点上比普林斯顿的规则合理得多。

以下是译文和评注:

Quote:
大天使和魔法师

bbsriver 译自 www.princeton.edu/~mafia/vr1.htm


别名:

大天使亦称:医生、护士

魔法师亦称:巫医
                                                                                                                               
大天使(我们通常用红心A来代表)是一个具有保护能力的角色。他每夜可以选择保护一人。法官在夜里宣布“大天使醒来”。大天使就可以睁眼了。大天使能保护一个人不被杀手暗杀。法官会问他:“大天使,你要保护谁?”大天使会指一个人,可以是他自己。然后法官宣布“大天使入睡”,大天使就闭上眼睛。如果当夜杀手也选了同一个人作杀人目标,法官在天亮的时候将宣布这一夜无人死亡。

大天使是个非常强大的角色。我们玩的时候一般不带上他。如果我们带上大天使玩的话,通常要限制大天使的权力:他不能保护自己。这是为了避免游戏最后陷入耍赖的平局:杀手杀不了大天使,大天使一个人也没法形成过半数的票处决最后一个活着的杀手。

还有一点很重要,需要注意:大天使只能保护玩家夜里不被杀手所杀。但是玩家仍有可能死于狼人、警卫或市长之手。

与此相似,魔法师是保护玩家不被狼人所杀。但是魔法师也不能保护自己。

附注:杀人游戏被传到普林斯顿时已经包含了大天使这个角色。大多数版本的规则中都有大天使,因此下面这个演化版本原名就叫“没有大天使”。如果以这个规则为标准规则,我们就不得不回过头来谈谈这个角色:
    似乎很多人玩的杀人游戏中都没有大天使这个角色。这就意味着天使基本上不能暴露自己。因为那明摆着会让他成为杀手的目标。这时天使必须隐藏身份,仅仅通过辩论来对游戏施加影响。

    附注:我们偶尔玩过几次这个演化规则,非常成功。通常,最好是设置两个天使而不是一个。我们还发现了一种非常有趣的战术,即天使一开始应该调查坐在他旁边的那些人。如果能够确定他旁边没有杀手,天使就可以把自己知道的不动声色的泄漏给旁边的人,或反过来指出谁是杀手,谁不是。即便天使牺牲了,这些信息还能流传下来。天使邻座的人,也许只是一个普通平民,也可以对杀手提出指控。和天使相比,牺牲他们更划算些。(这算什么战术啊,在国内玩家看来和作弊差不多吧 ——bbsriver注)
附注:我们在99年12月27日从Pomona学院的Ephraim Ross那里听说,他玩过的杀人游戏中有一个类似的角色叫治安官。

参见“两个大天使”。
Posted: 2006-04-20 07:26 | 3 楼
bbsriver
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Quote:
Two Archangels
                                       


Ideal for a game with two angels? Perhaps. We have never tried this variant. This variant could be played with the two archangels acting independently or together.

Note - We have never played this variant, and we further went through a phase in which we considered the archangel too powerful. However, the archangel, as of April 1999, is achieving a bit of a comeback. The role has been weakened, though, and the archangel cannot protect himself.

Adrian Banner suggests: "How about two archangels, unable to protect themselves, but if they both protect the same person then it cancels out? Only one angel should make this particularly interesting."




Source: http://www.princeton.edu/~mafia/v10.htm

bbsriver翻译和评注

以下是译文:

Quote:
两个大天使

bbsriver 译自 www.princeton.edu/~mafia/v10.htm


一局游戏中有两个大天使是个好主意?我们从没尝试过这个演变规则。这个规则可以在游戏中设置两个大天使,分头或共同行使权力。

附注:我们从没玩过这个演变规则。一度我们考虑,大天使这个角色太强大了。但是1999年4月,大天使的权力被削弱了——他不能再保护自己,因此这个角色又重新在游戏当中复活。

Adrian Banner建议:“两个大天使不能保护自己,但是如果他们两个同时决定保护同一个人,让他们俩的权力相互抵消如何?仅仅一个天使将营造这样别具一格的乐趣。”(末一句逻辑不通。怀疑自己没翻对,要不就是原文的should后面漏了一个not。“仅仅一个天使不能营造这样别具一格的乐趣”就通顺了 ——bbsriver注)
Posted: 2006-04-21 19:17 | 4 楼
bbsriver
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Quote:
Bulletproof Vest and Wolfsbane
                                       


A certain Andrew Plotkin has suggested on his homepage about "Werewolf" (the game of Mafia under a different name) that one player could be protected against assassination from the beginning of the game. He suggests wolfsbane against werewolves; we would suggest a bulletproof vest against the mafia. One player could randomly be dealt, say, the jack of diamonds, and have a limited version of the power of the archangel-- in other words, only the power to protect himself against the mafia. This may replace or supplement the archangel. We have played several times with a bulletproof vest, with mixed reults. This could lead to tie situations.

Note - We have played frequently with the bulletproof vest, and he has become a regular, although not obligatory, character in our village. There has, in the past, been some confusion over the "tie situation" ending. If only one mafia member and one civilian are left, the mafia win, because the civilian cannot attain a majority to kill during the day and the mafia can kill off the remaining civilian during the night. Note, however, that if you have one mafia member and one bulletproof vest left, the mafia cannot kill during the night, and the bulletproof vest cannot convict during the day. The same thing would happen if you replace the bulletpoof vest in the above analogy with an archangel capable of protecting himself. Generally, archangels don't last as long, though, for a variety of reasons.

Note also that it doesn't behoove the bulletproof vest to come forward immediately-- the mafia will waste one turn on trying to kill the bulletproof vest. If the vest comes forward, the mafia will be able to use this formerly wasted turn to kill a civilian. However, once the mafia have tried to kill the bulletproof vest, it behooves the vest to come forward. If there is only one claimant to being the vest, then the civilians are assured of at least one person whose word can be trusted.

Note, however, that if you combine this variant with the variant of the devil, it is still debatable whether the vest should come forward after a night in which noone was killed-- perhaps the devil will still waste a turn checking the vest out.




Source: http://www.princeton.edu/~mafia/vr2.htm

bbsriver翻译和评注

    [*] “防弹衣”是国内杀人游戏规则中没有的角色。然而不是个很有趣的角色。一个优秀的角色的特权不但要平衡双方的力量对比,还应该增加游戏的推理成分。但是防弹衣的特权过于简单,效力固定在自己一个人身上。既没有随机性和不可预见的特点,也无助于平衡双方力量对比。如果要引入“防弹衣”这个角色的话,那么我觉得,另一组杀手——“狼人”就是必不可少的。必须有一组能够制衡防弹衣的力量。

    [*] 另外说两句狼毒。狼毒是一种草,种子、叶子和根都含有剧毒,能够使心脏跳动频率变慢、血压降低。欧洲农民原来把它致命的毒液与肉拌在一起放到外面,防止狼袭击家畜,故名“狼毒”。欧洲传说认为人吃了狼毒之后会变成狼人。国内也有野生狼毒,康巴藏语称为“阿交如交”,属瑞香科,生长在高海拔的山坡和牛场。许多去青海和西藏的摄影者喜欢拍摄草场上红色的植物,其实那就是狼毒,接触多了皮肤会过敏。

以下是译文和评注:

Quote:
防弹衣和狼毒

bbsriver 译自 www.princeton.edu/~mafia/vr2.htm


某个叫Andrew Plotkin的人在他的关于“狼人游戏”(杀人游戏的别名)的主页上提了个建议:一个玩家可以从游戏一开始就保护自己免遭杀害。他建议创设“狼毒”一角以对抗狼人;我们则建议创设“防弹衣”一角以对抗杀手。这个角色用方片A来代表,随机分配给某个玩家。他可以看成一个力量被削弱了的大天使——换句话来说,他仅仅能保护自己免遭杀手杀害。这个角色可以取代大天使或者作为大天使的补充。我们玩过几次防弹衣这个角色,结果不一,可能导致平局。

附注:我们玩的时候常带上防弹衣这个角色。他已经成为了标准规则的一部分。虽然这个角色在我们的小村子里并不是不可缺少的。游戏以平局收场曾引起一些混乱。如果最后剩下一个杀手和一个平民,那是杀手获胜。因为平民在白天无法以过半数的票处决杀手,杀手却能在夜里杀了剩下的这个平民。但如果剩下的是一个防弹衣和一个杀手,杀手在夜里杀不了防弹衣,防弹衣也不能在白天处决杀手。如果允许大天使保护自己的话,剩下一个大天使和一个杀手也会出现类似的局面。虽然因各种各样的原因,大天使很少能活到最后。

还要注意,防弹衣不要一开局就自暴。杀手要找出防弹衣,就必须浪费一轮杀人的权力。如果防弹衣自暴了,杀手就会把本可能浪费掉的这一轮用来杀其他平民。不过一旦杀手杀过了防弹衣,防弹衣就可以自暴了。如果只有一个人跳防弹衣,平民就可以知道至少有一个人的话是可信的。

不过要注意,如果你把这个演化规则和恶魔的演化规则结合起来,那么防弹衣应不应该在某夜没有死人之后自暴就仍有争议。因为恶魔也可能浪费一夜的调查权在防弹衣身上。
Posted: 2006-04-21 19:59 | 5 楼
bbsriver
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Quote:
Devil and Wizard
                                       


Aliases:

The Devil is also known as: Agent
                                                                                                                                                               
Georg Essl has suggested that one may want to include a Devil (ace of spades) for those situations where two mafia are too few and yet three are too many. The devil works on the same side as the mafia, but he doesn't know who the mafia are, nor do they know who he is. The devil has a right to ask if someone is an angel. One may vary this to allow the devil also to know whether the chosen person is an archangel, or modified yet again to let him know who is mafia. One could use any combination of these powers. Remember, the devil is trying to help the mafia by rooting out the angel.

The Wizard is a similar role working for the Werewolves. The Wizard checks for the Seer instead of the Angel.

Note - On November 2, 1998, we tried out this role (the Devil) for the first time, and it met with some success. It is important to make clear at the beginning of the game that the angels cannot "see" the devil-- they are told by the moderator that he is innocent. (One may play a variant in which the moderator uses his fingers to indicate horns when the angel asks about the devil; we haven't tried this one.) Either way, the procedure adopted should be made clear at the outset of the round.

Further, the devil may easily indicate his identity to the mafia by signaling during the night with his eyes closed.

In the one round we played, the devil was able, quite neatly, to have an angel convicted. Since, however, people didn't realize the identity of the devil until the very end of the game, it wasn't obvious that the devil had influenced the game, and the character was deemed irrevelant by a number of players. This character suffers from the fact that his labors are perpetually hidden.

Note - On April 1, 1999, we tried the devil again but added in the variant that the Devil receives a nod for both angels and Masons.

Note - The Devil has achieved a certain resurgence in popularity as of April 1999.




Source: http://www.princeton.edu/~mafia/vr3.htm

bbsriver翻译和评注

    [*] “恶魔”是站在杀手方专门调查谁是警察的角色。它可以找出警察警察却找不出他。我在国内规则中没见过“恶魔”这个角色。我非常喜欢这个角色的创意,甚至认为这是普林斯顿规则中最伟大的创造之一。恶魔不但有效的平衡了天使的调查权,还因为它的特殊立场——站在杀手方,但是不能杀人,从而极大的丰富了游戏的各种战术。我想平民和杀手围绕这个角色都会产生一系列有趣的战术革命。如果狗狗版规则会恢复“占卜”一角的话,我肯定会引入“恶魔”来制衡它。

    [*] 恶魔和杀手互不相识对于恶魔来说难度太大。如果要发挥出战术威力,恶魔就必须和杀手互通消息。所以我认为恶魔必须和杀手互知身份。

以下是译文和评注:

Quote:

恶魔和巫师


bbsriver 译自 www.princeton.edu/~mafia/vr3.htm

别名:

恶魔亦称:代理人
                                                                                                                               
Georg Essl建议在规则中加上恶魔(黑桃A代表),用在那些两个杀手略少,三个杀手又太多的局面。恶魔站在杀手一边。但是他不知道谁是杀手,杀手也不认识他。恶魔的权力是调查谁是天使。也可以改成让恶魔也能调查出大天使。或者进一步改成让恶魔知道谁是杀手。这些权力可以任意组合。记住,恶魔的使命是帮杀手找出天使。

巫师的角色与之近似,但他是站在狼人一边的。巫师要找的不是天使,而是先知。

附注:1998年11月2日,我们首次尝试这一角色。相当成功。有一点很重要,在游戏开始之前必须解释清楚:天使看不出谁是恶魔。天使调查到恶魔的时候,法官会告诉他这是个好人。(有一种演化规则是,当天使问到恶魔的时候,法官会用手指比划成犄角的形状;我们没有尝试过这种规则。)无论采用哪种规则,在每局游戏开始之前必须交待清楚。

而且,恶魔在夜里很容易发出信号向杀手示意自己的身份,即使他的眼睛是闭着的。

我们玩过一局游戏,恶魔非常能干、非常巧妙的把天使指控成杀手方的人。直到游戏即将结束,人们还没能认出他的身份。恶魔对游戏的影响并不明显,许多玩家并不重视这个角色。这个角色的不爽在于他必须永远默默无闻的工作。

还要注意,防弹衣不要一开局就自暴。杀手要找出防弹衣,就必须浪费一轮杀人的权力。如果防弹衣自暴了,杀手就会把本可能浪费掉的这一轮用来杀其他平民。不过一旦杀手杀过了防弹衣,防弹衣就可以自暴了。如果只有一个人跳防弹衣,平民就可以知道至少有一个人的话是可信的。

附注:1999年4月1日,我们也尝试过恶魔既可以调查天使,又可以调查共济会员的演化规则。

附注:恶魔如今已经像1999年4月那样再度流行起来。
Posted: 2006-04-21 20:14 | 6 楼
bbsriver
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Quote:
Masons
                                       


We all know that our small Italian village is filled with Mafia and civilians, as well as the occasional werewolf or heavenly visitor. However, some of the civilians may be more than plain civilians. A select group of these citizens may be Masons.

Masons are just like plain civilians in every respect, except that they know each other from longstanding membership in the Masonic Lodge. They know each other well enough that they are sure their fellow Masons cannot be members of the Mafia.

Practically, Masons wake up the first night for the sole purpose of recognizing each other. After that, they are just plain civilians for the rest of the game.

This concept originated when Matt Hindman, on December 10, 1998, started asking people, "Are you a member of the Brotherhood?" (meaning the Mafia). Adrian Banner then asked, concerning one person, "What does it matter if he's a Mason? Find out if he's Mafia!"

The existence of Masons is a strong power for the civilians, because there is a nucleus of civilians in which no member will vote for the lynching of another member. Further, it would probably not be feasible for members of the Mafia to claim to be Masons.

The number of Masons should be small, and Masons should only be used in a game with a large number of players.

If one or more Masons are killed off early, their utility is very low, but Masons surviving to the end of the gameare extremely valuable to the civilians. It is only toward the very end of the game that Mafia members may claim to be Masons in order to convince civilians to kill off the real Masons. This is a desperate and risky strategy.




Source: http://www.princeton.edu/~mafia/vr4.htm

bbsriver翻译和评注

    [*] “共济会员”是平民的加强版。相当于几个可以交流的平民。威力非常强大。所以共济会员的比例我想至少不能超过平民的1/4。

    [*] 如果狗狗版规则给予庶民以“祈祷”的特权的话,就不会在庶民中引入共济会员这类角色。

以下是译文和评注:

Quote:

共济会员


bbsriver 译自 www.princeton.edu/~mafia/vr4.htm


众所周知,我们的意大利小村子满是杀手和平民,偶尔也有狼人和来自天堂的客人。平民中的一些人可以比其他平民更进一步,成为共济会员——一个由被挑选出来的平民组成的团体。

共济会员在其他各个方面都和普通平民一样,但是他们作为共济会的终身成员彼此相识。这足以让他们确定他们当中没有杀手。

实际上,共济会员只需要在一局游戏的第一夜醒来相互认识一下。往后各夜他们和普通平民就没有区别了。

这一创意源自Matt Hindman,他在1998年10月10日问别人:“你是个兄弟(意即黑手党)吗?”Adrian Banner随即就某人问道:“如果他是个共济会的兄弟那有什么关系?要找的是黑手党兄弟!”

共济会员是平民中的一股有生力量。他们不可能相互投票以处决对方,足以成为平民的骨干。杀手要指控共济会的成员也很难成功。

共济会员的人数要比较少。而且一局游戏只有玩家非常多的时候,才适合加上共济会员这个角色。

如果一个或几个共济会员早早牺牲,他们的用处就不大了。但是如果共济会员能活到游戏结束的时候,对平民来说他们就价值连城。只有在游戏快结束的时候,杀手才可能发动对共济会员的指控,意在说服平民来处决共济会员。这是被逼无奈的冒险策略。
Posted: 2006-04-21 20:54 | 7 楼
bbsriver
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Quote:
Vigilante
                                       


Aliases:

The Vigilante is also known as: Dirty Cop
                                                                                                                                                               
Steven J. Miller has suggested adding a vigilante to the game. The vigilante works for the civilians. He wakes up each night and has the option of killing someone.

Variant of this variant: If he kills the same person the Mafia kill, they catch him and he dies as well.

Note - We tried this variant 1/14/99 with mixed success. We did not use the variant of the variant.

We noted a slight problem with this character. It is easy for the vigilante and the angel to give each other signals at night, so this was banned, except insofar as they may identify themselves to each other.

Also, it was resolved that, if the mafia kill the vigilante during the night, the vigilante doesn't get to kill.

Note
- As of October 2001, the Vigilante is a popular character, making regular apparitions. Especially in Multiple Life games, where players are called by name instead of character, which makes communications with the angel difficult.




Source: http://www.princeton.edu/~mafia/vr5.htm

bbsriver翻译和评注

    [*] “警卫”相当于俄罗斯规则中的狙击手,特权是站在平民方的立场上,每夜可以杀一个人。这项权力几乎导致警卫一个人的判断能力可以左右整个游戏的走向。这样,游戏的不可预见性太高了,从另一个角度削弱了推理的乐趣。因此我也不太喜欢这个角色。

    [*] 警卫绝对不能和天使互知身份。不然对杀手来说简直是噩梦。而如果两个职业者联手就能赢得游戏,要那么多平民来做分析还有什么意思。

以下是译文和评注:

Quote:
警卫

bbsriver 译自 www.princeton.edu/~mafia/vr5.htm


别名:

警卫亦称:坏警察
                                                                                                                               
Steven J. Miller建议在游戏中增加一个警卫警卫属于平民方。他每夜可以杀一个人。

在这个规则之上还产生了一个演化规则。如果警卫和杀手在夜里杀到了同一个人,警卫会给杀手抓住,也给做掉。

附注:我们在99年1月14日尝试过这个规则,不是特别成功。我们没试过这个规则之上的演化规则。

我们注意到这个角色有一个小问题:警卫和天使在夜里很容易相互暗示。这是违规的。规则只允许同角色的玩家互知身份。

另一项规定是,如果某夜杀手杀掉了警卫,警卫在这个晚上不能杀人。

附注:
2001年10月以来,警卫大受欢迎,被列入标准规则。特别是在“转世”规则(参见www.doggiehome.com/read.php?tid=41830第3楼译文 ——bbsriver注)当中,法官不叫玩家的角色而是叫玩家的名字,因此警卫要和天使交流特别困难。
Posted: 2006-04-21 22:39 | 8 楼
bbsriver
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Quote:
Mayor
                                       


This variant was suggested by Charles Stokes of Samford University. The mayor is a weakened vigilante. He may kill once during the game, night or day. In some variants, he may kill only during the day.

In Mr. Stokes' own words:

The mayor is a normal citizen in every way except that she can make one kill during the game. The mayor wakes up the first night to identify herself to the moderator and does not wake up again (except in Mayor wakes every night variant of this character, see below). At anytime during the day, the mayor may indicate to the moderator who she wishes to kill. Nothing happens to this person at this time, however, and play continues normally. At the end of that day after everyone "falls asleep" the moderator announces that the person killed by the mayor is dead by action of the mayor. The mayor may only exercise this power once and after doing so is a normal citizen with no special abilities.

Clarifications
    [*] Like other normal characters the mayor has no power when dead.
    [*] Anyone may claim to be the mayor and ask to execute someone, the moderator never indicates who actually effected the execution (since we also play with secret identities it is possible to not know who was the real mayor until the end of the game)
    [*] Once someone has announced she is the mayor and said who she wishes to execute, the pronouncement is irrevocable. In other words, even if she changes her mind, the person will die at the beginning of the night.
    [*] If the person who the mayor announces to execute is executed by vote in the town that same day and thus is already dead at the beginning of the night, the moderator announces nothing and continues play as normal, but notes (to himself, not allowed) the mayor has already used her power.
    [*] If the person who the mayor announces to execute is the final Mafia the moderator may end the game immediately or let discussion continue for fun and then end the game at the beginning of the night.
Immediate Execution by Mayor

In this variant the person is executed in the daytime immediately upon pronouncement of the mayor with the effect of silencing that person even in mid-sentence. This variant is fun and easy, but a little less strategic since the mayor's identity as a citizen is known to everyone after this and no one can ever fake being the mayor. It is the mayor is put on trial in this version. They almost always use their power to gain acquittal . . . and execute whoever is leading the charge against them.

Mayor Wakes Every Night

The moderator awakens the mayor every night and asks the mayor if she wants to use her power. Because we use secret identities the moderator continues to ask for the mayor every night if the mayor dies. After the mayor uses her power it is no longer necessary to continue to ask for the mayor to awaken.

"Morning After" Execution

This variant postpones the execution by a mayor until the "morning" (very first thing)of the next day after the mayor has called for the execution. This adds the possibility that the Mafia may choose to execute someone who was going to die already (thus wasting an opportunity to kill someone else). In addition, someone may claim to be the mayor and ask for the execution of someone in hopes that the Mafia will refrain from killing that person in the night.

Note
- We played this variant on 6/24/99 and it met with approval.




Source: http://www.princeton.edu/~mafia/vr6.htm

bbsriver翻译和评注

    [*] “市长”这个角色在游戏中可以公开或秘密的杀一次人,应该是比较强大的角色。对游戏走向也有一定影响。从普林斯顿规则的介绍来看,这个角色对战术的影响主要在于围绕市长可以产生一系列真假自暴——虽然这些自暴很容易被证实真伪。而另一方面,市长面临指控时为了证明自己是平民,也可能匆匆忙忙的杀一个人。这是否太轻率了?

以下是译文和评注:

Quote:
市长

bbsriver 译自 www.princeton.edu/~mafia/vr6.htm


这个规则是Samford大学的Charles Stokes想出来的。市长相当于一个被削弱了的警卫,每局游戏中他只能在夜晚或白天杀一个人。另一些演变规则则规定市长只能在白天杀人。

Stokes自己说:

除了整局游戏中可以杀一次人之外,市长在各个方面都是个普通平民。市长在第一夜醒一次,向法官证实一下自己的身份,以后各夜就不再醒过来了(除非规则演变成需要市长每夜都要醒过来,下详)。白天的任何时候,市长都可以向法官示意他要杀的目标。但这时还什么都不发生。游戏照常进行。到这天结束,每个人都“入睡”之后,法官会宣布被市长所杀那个玩家已经死于市长之手。市长仅能行使一次杀人权力,接下来他就跟个没有任何权力的普通平民一样了。

详细说明:
    [*] 像其他普通角色一样,市长死了就没有任何权力了。
    [*] 任何人都可以自称市长,并要求处决某人。法官从不公布到底是谁决定的行刑。(我们也玩过不公开身份的玩法。不到游戏结束,没人知道真正的市长是谁)
    [*] 一旦某人声明他是市长并说出他希望处决谁,这个判决就不能再取消。换句话来说,即便他改了主意,夜幕降临的时候被处决的人仍会死亡。
    [*] 如果市长要处决的人刚好在同一天被投票处决,那么到晚上这个人已经死了。晚上法官什么也不会说,游戏照常进行,但是要注意,市长已经用完他的权力了。
    [*] 如果市长处决的人是最后一名杀手,法官会直接宣布游戏结束。或者法官为了找乐,会让大家一直讨论到夜幕降临,一到晚上就宣布游戏结束。
市长直接行刑


这个演化规则中,市长可以在白天直接宣布处决某人。被处决的人即使话讲到一半,也要立刻闭嘴,从此不能再发言。这个演化规则又搞笑又简单。但是在策略上略有缺陷:这么一来所有人都知道了市长的平民身份,而且从此以后也不会再有人冒充市长。这个规则里市长要经受严峻的考验。他们几乎总是用他们的权力来证明自己无罪……并处决那些带头指控他们的人。

市长每夜都醒过来

法官每夜都唤醒市长,问他是否要使用他的权力。如果在游戏用的是不到结束不公开任何人的身份的规则,那么即使市长已经死了,法官也要夜夜都问市长是否要使用权力。但如果市长用过了权力之后,夜里就不用再唤醒他了。

在天亮以后行刑

这个演化规则把市长执行死刑的时间推迟到了他做出杀人决定的下一天早上。这就有可能让杀手在夜里杀到已经被市长判了死刑的人(因此杀手浪费了一夜机会,他本可以杀另一个人的)。此外,一些玩家可能自称是市长,并要求处决某人,希望以此防止杀手在夜里杀害这个人。

附注:
我们在99年6月24日玩过这个演化规则,颇受好评。
Posted: 2006-04-22 10:07 | 9 楼
bbsriver
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Quote:
Psychologist
                                       


Play-testing has shown that the Vigilante is far too powerful a character, especially in Multiple Life games. To correct this, we have added a Psychologist (10 of hearts) who gets to wake up each night and ask who the vigilante is.




Source: http://www.princeton.edu/~mafia/vr7.htm

bbsriver翻译和评注

    [*] “心理学家”站在平民方,每夜调查某人是不是警卫。我不解的是他调查出来谁是警卫之后怎么办?与他联系劝他慎重杀人?公布出来让平民或杀手杀掉警卫?心理学家这个角色和警卫本身是站在同一边的,然后还要对警卫起到限制作用,我觉得不现实。如果觉得警卫能力太强,取消掉就是了。设计出这么个没用的心理学家来制衡他干什么?

以下是译文和评注:

Quote:
心理学家

bbsriver 译自 www.princeton.edu/~mafia/vr7.htm


试玩证明警卫这个角色强大得过分了。特别是在用到“转世”规则的时候。为了制衡他的权力,我们增加了一个心理学家(红桃10代表),他在每夜醒过来,调查一个玩家是不是警卫。
Posted: 2006-04-22 10:31 | 10 楼
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Quote:
Walrus, Eggman and Tooth Fairy
                                       


The Walrus, much like the Devil, works for the Mafia but isn't one of them. The Walrus wakes up each night and determines whether the Vigilante gets to kill that night. After the death of the Walrus, the Vigilante may kill any night he chooses.

The walrus debuted 10/14/99 and has been a startling success.

The Eggman has the same powers as the Walrus, but is on the side of the Werewolves. It is left to the moderator's discretion whether the Vigilante can kill if both Walrus and Eggman refuse. (That is, they could cancel each other.)

The Tooth Fairy is yet another variation of the same role, introduced by Benedict Brown on 11/14/02. The Tooth Fairy is on the side of civilians. It could be a useful character since the Vigilante sometimes is a little trigger-happy and ends up killing civilians.

In it introductory game, the Tooth Fairy was not a great success, mostly because civilians lynched the Vigilante on the first day, so the role became quickly useless!




Source: http://www.princeton.edu/~mafia/vr8.htm

bbsriver翻译和评注

    [*] [*] “海象”、“蛋人”和“牙仙女”三个角色分属杀手、狼人和平民,权力都是批准警卫当夜能否杀人。可见警卫这个角色多让人没有安全感。无论如何,这个设计比“心理学家”合理多了。而且三人分别批准,只有至少两个人的批准结果一样才能生效,也增加了推理的难度。

    [*] 文中没有解释为什么用“海象”和“蛋人”这两个名字。我猜这和甲壳虫乐队的一首老歌《我是海象》(I am the Walrus)有关。歌词中有“I am the eggman/ They are the eggmen/ I am the walrus/ Goo goo g' joob”之语。而甲壳虫的这段歌词又源自英国作家卡尔·刘易斯的《爱丽丝镜中奇遇记》。“海象”和“蛋人”都是那篇童话中的出场人物。“牙仙女”则是西方传说中小孩子换牙时来收牙的精灵,和上述两个人物似乎并无关联。

以下是译文和评注:

Quote:
海象、蛋人和牙仙女

bbsriver 译自 www.princeton.edu/~mafia/vr8.htm



海象像恶魔一样,属于杀手方,但他不是杀手。海象每夜醒过来决定今夜警卫是否能够杀人。如果海象死了,警卫就能每夜就能随心所欲的杀人了。

海象在99年10月14日初次登场,出乎意料的大获成功。

蛋人的权力和海象一样,但他是属于狼人方的。如果夜里海象和蛋人都不同意让警卫行使权力,他们的否决会相互抵消。那就由法官来裁断今夜能不能让警卫行使权力。

牙仙女是同一角色的另一个版本,2002年11月14日Benedict Brown把她引入游戏。牙仙女是站在平民方的。对于一个喜欢乱开枪威胁到平民安全的警卫来说,牙仙女这个角色非常必要。

初次引入这个角色的时候,牙仙女没能有精彩的表现。主要是因为平民第一天就处决了警卫,让这个角色接下来没了用武之地。
Posted: 2006-04-22 11:19 | 11 楼
bbsriver
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Quote:
Godfather
                                       


A common problem is for the Mafia to be unable to decide who they want to kill at night. This causes Mafia members to point wildly and emphatically and this activity gives them away.

The Godfather is the highest ranking surviving member of the Mafia and makes all decisions. Other Mafia members may point of they wish, but they may stay silent otherwise. After the first turn, they need not even open their eyes again at night, unless they become Godfather.

This role made its debut on 3/4/99. It was well received. By acclamation, the king of the Mafia suit is the Godfather, the Queen is the Godmother, and the Jack is "Guido".

See also Invisible Godfather.




Source: http://www.princeton.edu/~mafia/vr9.htm

bbsriver翻译和评注

    [*] [*] “教父”是最高等级的杀手。为杀手划定等级主要是为了避免面杀中杀手方无法达成一致。版杀这种情况很少见,这个角色的意义也不大。

以下是译文和评注:

Quote:



有个普遍的问题:杀手无法就夜间杀谁达成一致意见。这造成杀手们激烈的强调自己的目标。这么做会泄露他们的身份。

教父是活着的玩家中最高级别的杀手。他可以决定一切。其他杀手可以指出他们想杀的目标,也可以保持沉默。在第一轮之后,其他杀手就不必再睁眼了,除非他们成为教父。

这个角色在99年3月4日登场。被普遍接受。一般我们用杀手牌的K代表教父,Q代表教母,J代表“基多”(来自电影《教父》——bbsriver注)

参见“隐身教父”。
Posted: 2006-04-22 12:29 | 12 楼
bbsriver
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Quote:
Invisible Godfather
                                       


See Godfather and Miller.

The Godfather, in this variant, is invisble to the angel, and appears like an innocent civilian.




Source: http://www.princeton.edu/~mafia/v34.htm

bbsriver翻译和评注

以下是译文:

Quote:
隐身教父

bbsriver 译自 http://www.princeton.edu/~mafia/v34.htm


参见“教父”和“米勒”。

有种演变规则:天使调查不出教父。在天使眼里教父只是一个普通平民。
Posted: 2006-04-22 12:37 | 13 楼
bbsriver
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Quote:
Magistrate
                                       


The magistrate (King of diamonds) may or must choose someone during the night to be placed in protective custody the following day, as a protection against daytime lynching. The moderator may announce the name of the protected person at the beginning of the daytime, and this person cannot be accused for that day. You may also play that they have been removed to protective custody and cannot debate or vote.

Note - We tried the Magistrate on 3/11/99, with poor results. We played protective custody, with the result that, at the end of the game, if the Magistrate sequesters a civilian, he can make it impossible to kill Mafia, which is a somewhat anticlimactic ending.

Note - The Magistrate was brought back into existence 6/24/99; however, the sequesteree could still cast a vote to convict. However, he could not debate or be lynched. Further, the Magistrate was given the option of sequestering someone. This was much more successful.




Source: http://www.princeton.edu/~mafia/vra.htm

bbsriver翻译和评注

    [*] [*] “地方官”近似于俄罗斯规则中的森林老人。不同的是森林老人的特权只是禁言某人,而地方官的特权不但是禁言某人,而且主要是保护某人不在下一天被投票处决。但是无论如何我都认为禁止某人参加讨论是个坏主意。尤其是在坚决反对潜水的版杀规则之中。

以下是译文和评注:

Quote:



地方官(方片K代表)每夜可以——或者必须——选择一人,在下一天把这个人置于保护性监管之下。被保护的人在白天不能被处决。法官在天亮的时候宣布被监管的人的名字,这个人在当天不受任何指控。规则也可以改成:被置于保护性监管之下的人当天不能参加讨论和投票。

附注:我们在99年3月11日尝试地方官这个角色。结果很可怜。到游戏结束的时候,如果地方官保护了一个平民,他就不能凑够票数处决掉杀手。这是个虎头蛇尾的结局。

附注:99年6月24日地方官这个角色再次被引入游戏。(详见 www.doggiehome.com/read.php?tid=41859 第2楼《游戏笔记》——bbsriver注)这次,被他保护的人可以参加投票,但是不能参加讨论,也不能被处决。后来规则又允许地方官在夜里弃权。这些变革是成功的。
Posted: 2006-04-22 13:21 | 14 楼
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