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bbsriver
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 【它山之石可以攻玉】特别篇之一:普林斯顿大学杀人游戏标准规则

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本帖被 bbsriver 从 它山之石 移动到本区(2008-03-11)
Rules of Mafia

    [*] The Introduction. On this page, we present the basic rules of Mafia. At the bottom of the page, you will find a large number of variants. Frequently encountered minor variants are noted in the rules in grey.

    [*] The Scenario. Mafia is a game that pits the forces of light against the forces of darkness. The players in a game of Mafia are residents of a small Italian village. The village is being terrorized by the mafia. During the night, the mafia roam about the village, selecting a law-abiding civilian as their victim. During the day, the villagers gather together, seeking justice, and vote to convict one of their number of secretly being a member of the mafia.

    [*] The Number of Players. 12+ ideal, may accept 8-12 with slight modifications. No maximum number, although becomes unwieldy with 24+.

    [*] The Equipment. One standard deck of cards.

    [*] The Goal of the Game. The goal is different depending on what sort of player you are. If you are a member of the mafia, your goal is to kill off all the civilians in the game. If you are a civilian, your goal is to kill off the mafia before they kill you off. If you are the angel, you are on the side of the civilians and share their goal.

    [*] The Deal. One player is selected each round to be the moderator. The moderator does not participate in the game as a player, but manages the game and remains absolutely neutral. The moderator shall choose cards out of the deck representing:

      Mafia: K Q J Clubs
      Angel: the queen of hearts (Use the queen of diamonds if you have a second angel)
      Civilians: red numbered cards 2-9

    It is recommended that the number of each type of card be adjusted according to the size of the game. For twelve players, select three mafia, one angel. Fill up the dealing pile with civilians to the total number of people in the game. If more than twelve players are in the game, consider replacing one of the civilians with an extra mafia member. If ten or fewer players are playing, consider having only two mafia instead of three.

    The moderator will ascertain how many of each card to deal and will deal each player, face down, one card. Each player will look at his or her card to see whether he or she is mafia, an angel, or a plain civilian. No one shall reveal his identity before the first day. No one shall ever show his card to anyone else while they are still alive. In a variant, the moderator may deal the cards out non-randomly, choosing secretly who is to play each role. This will raise speculation as to whom the moderator would have liked to be mafia.

    [*] The Play. Each turn consists of two phases. The first phase is night, the second phase is day. The moderator shall announce when each phase is occurring.

      Night. At the beginning of the game, and at the beginning of each subsequent turn, the moderator shall announce nightfall. All players (but not the moderator) shall close their eyes (and no peeking is allowed). The moderator should take pains not to speak in any particular direction lest he give out information as to the identity of the mafia or angel. The night phase is divided into two parts:

        (i) The moderator shall announce "Mafia awake." The mafia, and only the mafia, shall open their eyes. The mafia may kill one person per night. They may also elect not to kill anyone. In certain variants, they must kill someone. They shall decide amongst themselves by means of hand gestures whom should be killed. They shall communicate to the moderator by means of pointing. The moderator, once he understands who is to be killed, shall announce "Mafia asleep." and the mafia shall close their eyes.

        (ii) The moderator shall announce "Angel awake." If there is more than one angel in the game, then one should be the "Heart angel" (holding the queen of hearts) and one shall be the "Diamond Angel" (holding the queen of diamonds); they shall be called separately so that they do not see each other. The moderator shall ask "Who do you want to know about?" The angel should point to one person, and the moderator shall indicate by nodding or shaking of head and not by speaking whether the person indicated is a member of the mafia (nod) or not (shake head). The moderator shall then ask the angel to sleep. If there is another angel, then repeat this process. In certain variants, the moderator shall speak aloud whether the person is or is not mafia, carefully avoiding using gendered pronouns-- this allows the mafia to know whether the angel has discovered one of their number.

      Day. After this is done, the moderator shall ask everyone to wake up. Before anyone speaks, the moderator identifies who (if anyone) was killed in the night. The person assassinated by the mafia shall turn over his card (face up) on the table. In some variants, the mafia may choose not to kill during the night; although we have yet to come across a case in which this would be advisable, you ought to have a policy on it one way or another if you play some of the variants below.

      If someone is killed, he may not speak at all for the duration of the game, or in any other way communicate with the living. He may keep his eyes open at all times.

      At this point, the remaining survivors may vote to convict someone of being mafia. The survivors may freely discuss the situation. The angel, members of the mafia, or any other special added characters, may reveal themselves publicly if they feel that it is in their best interest to do so (which it mostly is not), provided that they never reveal their actual cards. Lying is permissible, and, for instance, a mafia member may claim to be an angel for the sake of having someone (non-mafia) convicted of being mafia. No player, though, under any circumstances, may display their card to another player, unless the player turning his card over is dead.

      The moderator, after allowing for a period of discussion shall ask for accusations. Any player may accuse any other player of being mafia. If an accusation is lodged, the accuser shall be allowed to explain the reason for his accusation. Then, the moderator shall ask for a second. If the motion is seconded, then the accused shall be allowed to state a defense. Other players may comment briefly on one side or the other. Then, the moderator shall take a vote. If a majority of the surviving members vote to convict, then the convicted player turns their card face up-- they have been put to death and may no longer participate in the game. If there is no majority in favor of conviction, the accused is aquitted and may not be accused again in the same turn.

      The day ends when:

        (a) Someone has been convicted and killed, or
        (b) The moderator determines that no more accusations are going to be (or can be) made.

      In case (b), noone is killed during the daytime. The moderator shall allow sufficient time for accusations to be made, but shall not allow the game to drag on unnecessarily.

      At the end of the day, the moderator shall terminate discussion immediately. Then, night falls and the moderator shall ask everyone to close his eyes.


    [*] Winning. The game shall be won by the mafia if there are no more civilians left, or if the number of civilians left is less than or equal to the number of mafia left, in which case the civilians will never be able to muster a majority to kill a member of the Mafia. The civilians win if all of the mafia are convicted and killed.




Source: http://www.princeton.edu/~mafia/rules.htm
Posted: 2006-04-16 11:43 | [楼 主]
mecyl
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英文功底不足,完全没有信心看懂……
Posted: 2006-04-16 14:06 | 1 楼
bbsriver
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bbsriver翻译和评注

    [*] 这是普林斯顿大学官方网站 (www.princeton.edu) 上最基本的标准面杀规则,考虑到基本规则和国内没有什么出入,又是面杀,对版杀意义不大。本来不想翻译了。不过后面一些比较有意思的规则演变涉及到基础规则的地方比较多,特别是一些术语。看的人可能需要先看一下最基本的规则才能了解演变版本的变化。所以还是给翻译过来。

    [*] 原文中“杀手”即“Mafia”,直译黑手党。 从国内的习惯统一翻作“杀手”。其他如警察等角色,都保留了普林斯顿规则的称呼,如警察被称作“Angel”(天使)等。

    [*] 普林斯顿这个杀人游戏规则网站比较有名。还有其他比较有意思的内容,有兴趣的自己去看 :普林斯顿大学校友杀手兄弟会 http://www.princeton.edu/~mafia/

以下是译文和评注:

Quote:
普林斯顿大学杀人游戏规则

bbsriver 译自 www.princeton.edu/~mafia/rules.htm


    [*] 简介 本篇介绍杀人游戏的基础规则。本页下方列出了这个规则的大量演变版本。(另贴翻译 ——bbsriver注)常见的细微变化,在本规则中用灰色字体标注。

    [*] 剧情 杀人游戏是一个“光明”与“黑暗”两大势力较量的游戏。玩家们是意大利一个小村子里的村民。这个村子陷于黑手党的淫威之下。每到夜里,黑手党的杀手在村中遛达,杀害守法的村民。到了白天,村民们集合起来,寻求正义,通过投票判决他们中的某人是罪恶的黑手党秘密党徒。

    [*] 游戏人数 最好12人以上,8-12人也可以接受。人数上不封顶,但是多于24人的话,玩起来很不方便。(这是指面杀而言 ——bbsriver注)

    [*] 道具 一副扑克牌

    [*] 游戏目标 不同游戏角色有不同的胜利目标。杀手的目标是杀光所有村民。村民的目标是在杀手杀光村民之前,处决所有杀手。天使和村民是一拨儿的,和村民的目标一致。(“天使”即国内规则的“警察”,考虑到后面翻译一些演化规则的时候还要频繁的遇到类似的“天使”、“大天使”、“恶魔”、“巫师”、“狼人”、“蓝博”[就是《第一滴血》里史泰龙演的那个蓝博,不要告诉我你没看过] 等身份名称,不一定都能在国内规则中找到对应的俗名,我都没有把这些名称对应转译成国内的俗名,而是在文中随遇到随注明 ——bbsriver注)

    [*] 分配身份 每局选出一个玩家作法官。法官不参与游戏,在游戏中保持绝对中立。法官从一副牌里挑出代表特殊身份的牌:

      杀手:梅花J、Q、K
      天使:红桃Q,(有两个天使的话,方片Q也加上。)
      村民:红桃和方片的2-9

    建议根据游戏的规模调整各类牌的数量。12名玩家中选择3杀手、1天使,其余都是村民。多于12名玩家,考虑把1个村民换成杀手。10名或不足10名玩家,仅设两名杀手。

    法官数好牌,扣着给每个玩家发一张。每个玩家看一眼自己是杀手、天使还是村民。第一天开始之前,任何人不能泄露自己的身份。任何人只要还活在游戏之中,都不能亮出自己的牌面。有一种演变版本是:法官发牌不是随机的,而是秘密选择某人来扮演某个角色。这会引起思索:本局法官喜欢选择谁来当杀手呢?(这个演变有助于平衡各方实力,但是会引发玩家思考法官的喜好等游戏之外的因素,不是个好的改动 ——bbsriver注)

    [*] 玩法 每轮分成两个阶段,第一阶段是夜晚,第二阶段是白天。由法官来宣布每个阶段的来临。

      夜晚。一局游戏开始之时和游戏中的每一轮开始时,法官会宣布天黑了,所有玩家(除了法官)闭眼(严禁偷看)。在做特殊指示的时候,法官尽可能避免开口,以免泄露杀手或天使的身份。夜晚分成两个阶段。

        (1) 法官宣布“杀手醒来”。杀手,仅仅是杀手,睁开眼睛。杀手可以选择本夜杀一个人,也可以决定本夜不杀人。某些演化版本之中,杀手每夜必须杀人。杀手们通过手势决定杀害目标,并指给法官看。法官搞清楚谁被杀之后,宣布“杀手入睡”,杀手们闭眼。

        (2) 法官宣布“天使醒来”。不只一个天使的时候,两个天使分别被称为红桃天使(持红桃Q的玩家)和方片天使(持方片Q的玩家),他们被分别唤醒,相互不认识。(就是两个警互不相识的规则 ——bbsriver注)法官问:“你要调查谁?”天使给法官指一个人,法官不能说话,通过点头或摇头说明这个人是不是杀手。然后法官宣布天使入睡。还有其它天使的时候,重复上述步骤。某些演化规则中,法官要大声说出“他是杀手”或“他不是杀手”,注意不要使用性别代词(英语这时有点不方便啊 ——bbsriver注)——这是让杀手知道他们中的一员是否已经被天使发现了。(这点比较有意思,杀手一旦意识到他们中的某人已经被警察发现,是否会采取一些非常规举动来反过来找警察呢?——bbsriver注)

      白天。以上流程结束之后,法官宣布所有玩家醒来。在其它人发言之前,法官指出谁(如果有的话)被杀了。被杀的人把他的牌翻过来(面朝上)放在桌上。一些演化规则中,杀手可以选择晚上不杀人。有时我们会遇到不得不这么做才是上策的情况。如果你玩过下列一些演化规则,你对采用哪种策略应当有长远方针。

      某人一旦被杀,他在游戏中就不能再说话,或者用其他任何方式和活着的游戏者交流。剩下的游戏时间,他可以睁着眼睛。(没有留遗言的环节 ——bbsriver注)

      这时,活着的人开始投票指控某人是杀手,自由讨论当前形势。如果杀手、天使或者加进来的其他特殊角色还没有亮出自己的牌面,他们可以公然自暴身份——万一他们觉得这么做对自己最有利的话(大多数时候不会的)。玩家可以撒谎,比方说,一个杀手可以宣称自己是天使,并据此指控某个村民是杀手。任何情况下,玩家都不能把自己的牌面亮给其他玩家,除非他已经死了。

      讨论之后,法官宣布开始指控。每个玩家都可以指控另一个玩家是杀手。原告提出指控后,可以解释他指控的理由。然后法官询问他人是否赞成这一指控。一旦有人赞成,被告可以为自己辩护。其他玩家可以对双方的控辩作简要评论。然后法官宣布投票。得票超过活着的人的半数,被指控者要翻过他的牌面朝上——他已经被处决,不能再继续游戏。如果一项指控没有拉到半数以上的票,被指控者可以留在游戏当中,同一轮不能再次对他提起指控。

      下列时刻是白天结束:

        (a) 某人被投票处决,或者
        (b) 法官宣布终止指控环节,没必要或没人能提出更多指控了。

      第二种情况下,白天没有人被处决。法官应当给玩家充足的指控时间,但是不能让游戏没必要的拖拉下去。

      白天结束的时候,法官将直接终止任何讨论。然后夜幕降临,法官要求所有人闭上眼睛。

    [*] 提醒 如果游戏中没有还活着的村民,或者活着的村民的数量少于或等于杀手,村民无法再凑足半数以上的投票处决杀手,算杀手赢得游戏。如果所有的杀手被处决,村民赢得游戏。
Posted: 2006-04-16 15:53 | 2 楼
香香睡美人
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杀人游戏MVP勋章II 杀人游戏MVP勋章I
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难道我看到了一篇阅读理解?
生活就是不少不多,不庸俗不痛苦,刚刚好
Posted: 2006-04-16 17:31 | 3 楼
mecyl
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呵呵,似乎和国内的面杀也没多大区别啊
Posted: 2006-04-16 21:17 | 4 楼
bbsriver
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几乎没有区别。搞起国际交流来比较容易。可以倡导成立“国际杀联”了。
Posted: 2006-04-16 21:54 | 5 楼
bbsriver
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不过这个规则要求投票的时候每次都必须过半数才能处决人,头两天的处决成功率可能比较低。
Posted: 2006-04-16 21:57 | 6 楼
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